DOCTRIN OF FORM
Graham’s Magazene Vol. XXXVII, No. 3, September 1850
Thare is a conection nætural and nessessery between the forms and essences of things; sum law which compells figgure and facculty intu correspondence; sum tie which binds nature, function, and end tu shape, vollume, and intrinsic arranjement.
That a wheel must be circular, a lever inflexible, and a screw, wedge and inclined plane shal hav a determinat form, is clearly a condition of adaptation tu use; and becaus in mashenëry the arranjement of inert matter is thuss essencial tu the action and aim of all contrivance and mutual ajustments of parts, we ar apt tu think configguration entirely a question of meccanical fitnis, and indifferent tu and independent of structures havving no such offis. But it is not so. Facts beyond number sho that it has deffinit and fixed relation tu substance universaly, without limitation tu a particcular kind or sphere of use, or manner or purpus of beïng.
I. Thare ar examples enough tu pruve that the fundamental law, conecting shape and arranjement with function, is stronger in the vital and spiritual than in the meccanical sphere, and even supercedes its settled order and method. An instance of thiss overruling force: —The ellephant in genneral organization is a quodrupëd, emminently; but his sagacity rizes so high abuvv the ordinëry levvel of brutes as tu require the servis of a proboscis, which is nearly equal in capabilitys of use tu the human hand. Furnished with a sort of fingguer at the extremity of thiss excelent instrument of prehension, he can draw a cork, lift a shilling pece from the ground, or sepparate wun blade of grass from a number with dexterity and despatch. In thiss his emminence of intelect is indicated, for external instruments ar in accurat relation tu internal faccultys, and considderable handicraft bespeeks a proportionatly high ranje of mental power. Now obzerve how his organization differs from that of other quodrupëds, and aproaches, aguenst all the analogys of classification, tuword the arranjements of the human form. He has the rudiments of five toes on eech fùt, shoen externaly by five toe-nails. Thiss is wun toe more than belongs tu enny beest belo the munky tribe. He has a kneepan on the hind leg, and the flexure of the lim is backword, like the human, and unlike other quodrupëds. The brest of the female is remoovd from its uzual position uponn the pelvis, tu the chest or brest bone, as in the more ellevated races; and all the organs of re-prodductiv life correspond tu thoze of the higher orders. All thiss is unexplained by enny meccanical nessessity or advantage, and is so far, in vyolation of the analogys of that loër constitution by which he is linked tu the order of foer fùtted annimals. Of his internal organization I hav no meens of information withinn reech, but I am sattisfied a priori that the human configguration and position of ports ar approximated wharevver the quodrupëd form and attitude leeves it possible. Compærativ anattomist make graet acount of all instances of meccanical accommodations which they meet with, but they ar in nuthing so remarkable or so conspiccuus as thoze which we ar now notissing. They hav the advantage of beïng understùdd, and ar tharefore much insisted uponn; but the facts which we hav guivven and hinted at ar at wunce so striking and so conclusiv as tu leeve no dout and no nessessity for further proof of the pre-emminence of the law which they indicate.
II. In lùkking over the wurld of annimal and veggetable forms thare is nuthing more remarkable than the continnual sacrifice of strength tu beuty, and of quontity or bulk tu simmetry and shapelinis. Use seems postponed tu appearance, and order, attitude and ellegance take rank of quontity in the forms of things. I supoze that the law under considderation determins theze conditions of structure; and that beuty tu which the sacrifice is creditted, as an end and object, is on'ly an incident; and, that the plezzure derived arizes uponn the felt correspondence of such forms with our faccultys, innately ajusted tu the harmonys of thiss universal law —in other wurds— that thare is an intrinsic force of essence which compells organization, limits its dimensions, and determins its figgure, and so, all substances take shape and vollume from a law higher and more genneral than individdual use and efficiency. Beuty, beïng but the name for harmony between facculty and object, may well serve as a rule of criticism, but the efficient caus which determins form lies deeper; it lies, doutless, in the nessessery relation of organization and essence —structure and use—appearance and offis— making wun the correspondent and exponent the other in the innermost philossophy of signs.
The abrogation of a rule, and departure from an established method of conformation, belonging tu a hole class of nætural beïngs, in order tu attain the forms and order of arranjement of another class intu hwos higher stile of constitution the loër has been sumwhot advanced, as in the case of the ellephant; and, the clear evvidence that meccanical perfection is evrywhare in the human meccannism subordinated tu a law of configguration, which has respect tu another standard and a higher nessessity —eech, in its oan way, demmonstrates that form is not on'ly a nessessity of meccanics, but is still more emminently an essencial condition of all substance. Facts from theze sorces hold a sort of raking position in the array of our argument, but the multitude and varyety of examples which muster reggularly under the rule ar, of themselves, evry way addequat tu maintain it.
III. Our proposition (tu vary the statement of it) is, that form, or figgure, and, doutless, dimension allso, hav a fixed relation tu the speshal quolitys and carracters of beïngs and things, and that it is not indifferent in the grand econnomy of creation whether they be pùt intu their prezzent shapes or intu sum other; but, on the contrery, the hole matter of configguration and dimension is determind by laws which arize out of the nature of things.
In gennerals the evvidence is clear, and it must, tharefore, be true in the minutest particculars; for the law of aggregates is the law of individduals —the mass and the attom hav like essencial conditions. It is, indeed, difficult tu trace facts intu the inmost nature of things, and quite impossible tu pennetrate by obzervation as deep as principles led by the process of mental investigation— so much more limitted in the discuvvery of trueth, even the trueth of phisics, ar the senses than the reesoning faccultys. We need, howevver, but open iyes tu see that the diversitys of form amung all created things ar, at leest, as graet as their differences of carracter and use; and whether thare be a determinat relation of appearance tu constitution or not, thare is at leest an unlikenis of configguration or dimension, or of boath, wharevver thare is unlikenis of quolity; and that thiss difference of form thuss comensurat with difference of constitution, is not merely a matter of arbitrery distinctivnis amung the multifarius objects of creation, as names or marks ar sumtimes attached tu things for certanty of refference and reccognition, appears from such facts and considderations as follo:
All minneral substances in their fixed, that is, in their cristaline form, ar anggular with flat sides and streight edges. Thiss is not on'ly a genneral rule and an approximat statement, but exactly accurat and universal; for in the few instances of cristals occurring with convex or curvilinnear faces, such as the dyamond, it is knoen that their primary forms hav plane or flat faces and a parralel clevage —making the rule gùd aguenst accidental influënces and superficial appearances.
Here then we hav a mode of configguration aproepriat tu and distinctiv of wun hole kingdom of nature.
In veggetables we hav a different figgure and carracteristic conformation. Their trunks, stems, roots and branches ar nearly cillindrical, and uniformly so, in all individduals clearly and completely withinn the class.
Soon as we enter the pre-cincts of life curvature of lines and convexity of surface beguinn tu mark the higher stiles of existence, the law beïng that nuthing which livs and groes by the reception and assimilation of food is anggular, rectilinnear or included withinn plane surfaces. Inert boddys take streight, but life assumes curve lines.
In annimal forms the curve of life line is prezzent of nessessity, but it undergoes such moddifications and departure from that which marks veggetable existence as our law demands. We no longer hav allmost cillindrical simplicity of shape as the sign of carracter and kind, but, retaining curvity, which is common tu vitality of all modes, we find the cillinder shaped or taperd tuword the conical, with continnualy incresing approach tu a higher stile of configguration as we ascend tuword a higher carracter of function.
In the human boddy all that belongs tu the hole inferior creation is represented and re-prodduced, for man is logicaly a miecrocosm, and in his boddy we find the varius orders of nætural beïngs marked by their approepriat modes of construction and configguration —from a hair tu a hart, the multifarius parts bring with them the forms nativ tu their respectiv varyetys of beïng.
The bones hav in them the material of the minneral kingdom, and they hav conformity of figgure. In the short, square bones of the wrist, in the teeth, and sevveral other instances, the flatnis, streightnis and anggularity propper tu cristalized matter, marks its prezzence as an elëment of the structure.
The correspondence of the vascular sistem with the forms propper tu veggetation, is most striking. A gùd drawing of the blud vessels is a complete picture of a tree. Now, annimals and veggetables differ widely in their manner of taking in food, but they ar alike in the method and end of the distribution of the nuetritius fluids, and between them the resemblance of forms obtains on'ly in thiss, as our law requires. Thare is nuthing in trees, shrubs or grasses, that has enny outline likenis tu the essophagus, stummac or intestinal tube; nuthing in them has enny resemblance of offis, and nuthing, tharefore, is formed uponn their pattern. The roots of trees, which ar the avvenues of their principal æliment, ar merely abzorbing and circulating instruments —a sort of counterpart branches in function— and they hav, tharefore, whot scyentific peeple call the arborescent arranjement wharevver they find it.
Iff it is anserd here that a hiedrolic nessessity determins the genneral form of circulating vessels, and that certan immedïat meccanical advantages belong tu the cillindrical over the square or polliggonal shape of tube, our point is not affected. We ar shoïng, now, that the expected conformity nevver fails. It is essencial tu our position that meccanical requirements shal not overrule the genneral law. The instance guivven is in acordance, and a presumption rizes that even meccanical conformation itself is cuvverd and accommodated by the graet principle which we ar illustrating. It is enough for uss, howevver, that no facts contradict, tho it be douted whether all the instances cited afford uss the expected support.
But, leeving the functions and organs, which belong tu all livving and groïng beïngs in common, and entering the provvince of annimal life and annimal law propper, we evrywhare obzerve a signifficant departure from the anggular and cillindrical forms of the minneral and veggetable kingdoms, and an approach, in proportion tu the rank and vælue of the organ and its use, tuword an ideal or moddel, which is næither conical nor hart-shaped, exactly, but such moddification of them as carrys the standard figgure farthest from that uniformity of curve which marks a globe, from the parralelisms of fiber which belongs tu the cillinder, and from the flatnis of base and sharpnis of apex which bound the cone.
The lims that take their shape from the mussles of locomotion, and the internal parts concerned in thoze high vital offisses, of which minnerals and veggetables ar holy destitute, ar examples and proof of the configguration propper tu the annimal kingdom. The thigh, leg, arm, fore-arm, fingguer, the neck and sholders, the chest, and the abdomen meeting it and resting on the pelvic bones, ar felt tu be beutifùl or true tu the standard form as they taper or conform tu thiss intuitiv life-tipe.
The glands ar all larger at wun end than the other, and thoze that hav the highest uses ar most conspiccuusly so, and hav the best defined and most ellegant contoor. The descending grade of figgure and function is marked by tendency tu roundnis and flatnis. In the uses, actions and positions of theze organs, thare is nuthing meccanical tu determin their figgure. The human stummac is remarkable for an ellegance of form and conformity tu the ideal or pattern configguration, tu a degree that seems tu hav no other caus, and, tharefore, well suports the doctrin that the importance of its offis confers such excellence of shape. The facts of compærativ anattomy cannot be introduced with conveniënce, but they ar beleeved tu be in the happiëst agreement and strongest corrobboration.
The hart, lungs and brain, ar emminent instances of the principle. They hold a very high rank in the organization, and, while their automatic relations, uses and actions ar toto cœlo dis-simmilar, their agreement with eech other in genneral stile of configguration, and their common tendency tuword the standard intimated, is most remarkable. Their near equolity of rank and use, as mezzured by the signifficance of form, over-rides all meccanical difference in their mode of wurking. The hart is, in offis, a forcing pump or enjin of the circulation. The lungs hav no motion of their oan, and the porossity or cellular formation of the sponje seems tu be the on'ly quolity of texture that they require for their duty, which is classed as a process of vital kemmistry. The brain differs, aguenn, intu a distinct cattegory of function, which accepts no classification, but baers sum resemblance tu electrical action. Yet, differing thuss by all the unlikenis that thare is between meccanical, kemmical and electro-vital modes of action, they evvidently derive their very considderable resemblance of figgure from their nearly equal ellevation and dignity of servis in the frame. Thiss near neighborhùd of use and rank alows, howevver, room enough for their individdual differences and its marks. The hart is loëst of the three in rank, and nearest the reggularly conical form. The lungs, as their shape is indicated by the cavity which they occupy, ar more dellicatly taperd at their apex, and more obleque and variusly incurvated at their base. And the brain, whether vewed in foer compartments, or two, or entire, (it admitts næturaly of such division), ansers still nearer tu the highest stile and form of the life pattern; and with the due degree of resemblance, or alusion tu it, in its sevveral parts, according tu their probbable vælue; for the hemmispheres ar shaped much more conformably tu the ideal than the cerrebellum or the cerrebral apparatus at the base of the brain, whare the offis beguinns tu chanje from that of gennerating the nervus power tu the loër servis of merely conducting it out tu the dependencys.
IV. Hithertu we hav lùkd for proof and illustration on'ly tu well marked and clearly defined examples of the orders and kinds of things exammind. But the borders of kingdoms and classes, the individduals which make the tranzitions, and the elëments and quolitys common tu sevveral provvinces which link kind tu kind and rank tu rank, confess the same law, and even more nicely illustrate whare, tu superficial vew, they seem tu contradict it.
Evry speciees of beïngs in the creation is a re-prodduction, with moddifications and additions, but a real re-prodduction, in effect, of all that is belo it in the scale; so that the simplest and the loëst continnues and re-appears in all, thru all varyety of advancement, up tu the most complex and the highest; in sum sense, as sum dessimals include the constittuent units, and hundreds include the tens, and other multiples of theze embrace them aguenn, untill the perfect number is reeched, iff thare be enny such bound tu æither numerals or natures.
The rectilinnear and parralel arranjements of parts propper tu cristalization, which is the loëst plastic power of nature knoen tu uss, continnues, proximatly, in the stems and branches of veggetables. Thiss will accord with our theory, iff ascribed tu the abundant minneral elëments prezzent in the wùddy fiber, and tu its insensibility and enduring nature, as shoen by its integral preservation for ages after deth, tu a degree that rivals the rocks themselves. But the stems of trees ar not exactly cillindrical and their fibers ar not quite parralel; for thare is sumthing of life in them that refuzes the arranjement of ded matter. From root tu top they taper, but so graddualy that it is on'ly decidely seen at considderable distances or in the hole length.
A section of a timber tree shoes a reggular concentric arranjement of rings —the successiv deposits of sequent years— and its clevage pruves that it has allso a raddïated disposition of fibers. In the flat bones of the hed thiss same arranjement of parts obtains. The cartilagginus base of bone has a life of perhaps equal rank with that of the veggetable structure; it has its insensibility, elasticity, and durability at leest, with scaercely enny higher quolitys; and the osseus deposit is throen intu figgure and order simmilar tu the ligneus.
The frutes, kernels, and seeds of plants, beïng the highest results of the veggetable grade of livving action, and so bordering uponn the sphere of annimal existence, and even intruding intu it, beguinn tu take its propper forms, and they ar spheroidal, oblate spheroids, conical exactly, ovoid, and even clozely tuch uponn the hart-shaped; yet without danjer of confusion with the forms distinctiv of the higher stile of life. Thiss compærisson, it must be remarked allso, is between the frutes of wun kind and the organic structures of the other, and not of organ with organ, which in different kinds shoes the graetest diversity, but of spheres of existence immedïatly contigguus, and tharefore clozely resembling eech other.
V. Of theze forms the glœbular is probbably the very loëst; and, accordingly, of it we hav no perfect instance in the annimal boddy, and no near approach tu it, except the iye-ball, whare meccanical law compells a rotundity, that mussle, fat, and skin seem employed tu hide as well as moov and gard, and, in the round heds of bones, whare the ball and socket-join is required for rotatory motion. But in boath theze cases the offisses which the roundnis serves ar meccanical, and so, not exceptions tu our rule. The perfectly spherical must rank as a lo order of form, becaus it results from the simplest kind of force, mere phisical atraction beïng addequat tu its prodduction, without enny inherent moddifying power or tendency in the subject. It is, accordingly, very repugnant tu taste in the human structure; as, for instance, rotundity of boddy, or a bùllet-hed. Nuthing of that reggularity of curve which returns intu itself, and might be prodduced uponn a turning lathe, and no continuity of streight lines withinn the capacity of square and jack-plane, ar tollerable in a human feeture. Lips, slit with the streightnis of a button-hole, or conical precision, or roly-poly glœbularity, would be equaly ofensiv in the configguration of enny feeture of the face or genneral form. Cheek, chin, noze, brow, buzzom, pùt up intu such rotundity and uniformity of line and surfis, hav that meen and insignifficant uglinis that nuthing can releeve. In ragguedest irreggularity thare is place and space for the light and shade of thought and feeling, but thare is no trace or hint of thiss nobler life in the booby cùshony stile of face and figgure. Noze and brows, with allmost enny bredth of anggle; and chin, with enny varyety of line and surfis, ar better, just as cristalization, flat and streight and sharp as it is, nevvertheless, seems tu hav sum share in its oan make and meening, which roles and balls cannot lay enny claim tu.
VI. But the law under considderation cannot be restrained tu shape on'ly. Dimension is allso a result of intrinsic quolitys, and must in sum way and tu sum extent, indicate the carracter tu which it corresponds. Drugguists ar so well a·ware of, and so much concerned with the difference in the size of the drops of different fluids, that they hav constructed a table of equivvalents, made nessessery by the fact. Thuss a fluid dram of distilled wauter contains forty-five drops, of sulphuric eether wun hundred and fifty, of sulphuric acid ninety, and of Tennereef wine sevventy-eight. So that the law is absolutely universal, howevver varyd in expression, and a specific carracter in fluids and other parts of the inannimat wurld declares itself as decidely in bulk or vollume, as difference of constitution is shoen by varyety of figgure in the livving and sentient creation.
Amung the cristals termed i·somorphus by kemmists, the domminant inggredïent which is common tu them all, controles the form, but difference of size ansers sufficiently tu the partial unlikenis of the other less activ elëments; and so in the instances of cubes and octaheedrons formed of dis-simmilar minnerals whare difference of constitution is indicated by varyd dimensions on'ly.
VII. Cristal and cristal, and, drop and drop, ar alike withinn the limits of the speciees, or their unlikenis, iff thare be enny, is not appreciable tu our senses, and scaercely concevable tho not absolutely impossible tu thought; but we kno certanly that clear individduality of carracter is evrywhare pursued and marked by peculiarity of form and size thruout the entire universe.
While amung minnerals and fluids dis-simmilarity occurs obviusly on'ly between speciees, amung plants it beguinns tu be conspiccuus between individduals, groïng more and more so as obzervation ascends in the veggetable kingdom. Two stalks of grass may resemble eech other as much as two cristals of the same salt, but timber trees gro more unlike, and frute trees differ enough tu make their identification compærativly ezy. But it is in the annimal kingdom, emminently, and with increzing distinctnis as the rank rizes, that individduals becumm distinggwishable from eech other; for it is here that diversity of carracter guets opportunity, from complexity of nature, freedom of gennerating laws, and varyd influënce of circumstances, tu impress dis-simmilarity deepest and clearest. Cristals undergo no moddification of state but instant formation and the sudden vyolence which destroys them. Veggetables pass thru the chanjes of germination and groeth, and feel the difference of soil, and winnds, and temperature, and tu the limits of theze influënces, confess them in cullor, size, and shape; but annimals, endowed with acutenis of sense, enjoying locomotion, and related tu all the wurld around them —livving in all surounding nature, and susceptible of all its influënces— their individdual differences kno no limits, and they ar universaly unlike in appearance as in circumstances, training and carracter.
Even in the loër orders thare is ample proof of thiss. The mother bird and beest kno their oan yung; the shepperd's dog kno evry wun of their oan flock from evry other on all the hills and plains; and amung the milyons of men that peeple the erth, a quick iye detects a perfectly defined difference as braud as the peculiarity of carracter which underlies it.
Narronis of relations and Simplicity of function ar as narroly restrained in ranje of conformation; Complexity makes proportionate room for difference; and Varyety is the result, the sign, and the mezzure of Libberty.
Detailed illustrations of the law would interest in proportion tu the ranje of the investigation; and grattification and delight would keep pace with the deepening conviction of its universality; but the limits of an essay restrain the discussion tu mere hints and suggestions, and genneral statements of principles which reflection must unfold intu formal demmonstration for evry wun in his oan department of obzervation.
Sum inaccuracys of statement hav been indulged tu avoid the complexity which graeter precision would hav induced. Braud, frank thinking will ezily bring up thiss loosenis of langgwage tu the required clozenis of thought as the advancing and deepening inquiry demands. Moreover, it may be difficult or impossible tu meet evry fact that presents itself with an instant correspondence in the aledged law; but such things cannot be avoided untill peeple lern how tu lern, and cese tu meet novvel propositions with a piddling criticism, or a wranggling spirit of controversy. Lùkking largely and deeply intu facts in a hundred departments of obzervation will sho the rule clear in the focal light of their concurrent proofs, or, lùkking out from the central position of a priori reesoning, it will be seen in evry direction tu be a nessessery trueth.
It would be curius, and more than curius, tu trace ascent of form thru ascertained gradation of quolity in minnerals, plants, frutes, and annimal structures; and it would be as curius tu apply a criticism derived from thiss doctrin tu the purpus of fixing the rank and relations of all nætural beïngs —in other wurds, tu construct a scyence of taste and beuty, and, striking still deeper, a scyence of universal phizïonnomy, usefùl at wunce as a law of classification, and as an instrument of discuvvery. The scale would ranje most probbably from the glœbular, as the sign of the loëst carracter, thru the reggularly graded moovment of departure which in nature fills up all the stages of ascending function from a drop of fluid of the moddel configguration of, perhaps, that cerrebral organ which mannifests the highest facculty of the soal.
The signs that substance and its states guiv of intrinsic nature and use, or the connection of configguration and function, ar not understùdd as we understand the simbols of arithmetic, and the wurds of artificial langgwage; that is, the simbols of our oan creation anser tu the ideas they ar intended for, but the signs of the universal phizïonnomy of nature ar næither comprehended fùlly, nor translated even tu the extent that they ar understùdd, intu the formuly of scyence and the wurds of oral langgwage. Menny of them ar tellegraphed in dum sho tu our instincts, tu the graet enlargement of our converse with nature, boath sentient and inannimat; but still a vasst territory of knollege lies beyond the rendering of our intuitions, and remains yet unexplored by our understanding; a dark domain that has not been brought under enny rule of scyence, nor yielded its due tribbute tu the monnark mind. We hav no dictionëry that shoes the inherent signiffication of a cube, a hexagon, an octagon, circle, elipse, or cillinder; no tables of multiplication, addition, substraction, and division, which, deeling in forms and their equivvalents, might afford the prodducts, quotients, and remainders of their varius differences and intermingglings with eech other. States, quolitys, and attitudes of structure, contribbute much of that nætural langgwage by which we converse with the annimal wurld beneeth uss, and with the anjel wurld withinn uss, but it remains as yet instinctual, except so far on'ly as the fine arts hav brought it out of the intuitiv and orraccular intu rule and calculation, nor hav enny methodic calculus, universaly available, by which theze revvelations of nature may be renderd intu demonstrativ trueth ruled by scyentific method.
It is concevable that the form of evry nætural beïng is a fùll report of its constitution and use, but as yet, tedïus and dubius kemmical anælisis, obzervation, and experiment ar our directory tu the hidden trueth. In sum things it is otherwize. We kno perfectly a passion or emotion, and the meening of the attitudes, cullors, and forms of lim, person and feeture which denote them; and the interior quolitys of texture, allso, as they ar intimated tu the sight and tuch, leed uss without reesoning, tu deffinitiv judgements of human carracter. Of annimals, in their degree, we receve simmilar impressions and with equal conviction, but we kno so little more about theze things, than that we kno them, that we can make no advantage of such knollege beyond its most immedïat purpus in our commerce with the livving beïngs which surround uss.
It remains, tharefore, for mind tu explore the philossophy of form, that all which lies implied in it, waiting but still undiscuvverd, may cum out intu use, and all that we instinctivly posess of it may take a scyentific method, and so render the servis of a law thurroly understùdd. The principle guivs uss familliar aid evry day, yet without reveeling its oan seecret, phizïonnomy, painting, stattuëry, arkitecture, and ellocution. It is obeyed in all the impersonations of mettaphor, fable and mith; it is activ evry instant in the creations of fancy, and supplies, so tu speek, the material for all the structures of thought —ruling universaly in the erth, and fashoning and peepling the hevvens. Tu the most dellicat moovments of the immægination it guivs a corresponding emboddiment of beuty; and it helps, as well, tu realize the monstrus mixtures of man and beest occurring in human carracter by the ansering monstrossity of centaur, siren, sphinx, and sattir. The old Greek theology held that the eternal Divinity made all things out of an eternal matter, after the forms of eternal, self-subsisting patterns; a statement, in its utmost depth beyond the discuvvery of human faccultys, certanly, but not too strong tu express the universal prevvalence of thiss law in the creation. Tu the human intelect all things must exist in space, bounded and determind by figgure approepriat tu the subject; in fact, we can conceve of nuthing except under such conditions; and our doctrin but refers thiss nessessity of mind tu a primordïal nessessity of beïng, ranking it amung the harmonys of existence, as an adaptation of sense, thought, and feeling tu the correspondent trueth in the constitution of the universe.